Gagne de la cryptomonnaie GRATUITE en 5 clics et aide institut numérique à propager la connaissance universitaire >> CLIQUEZ ICI <<

IV.II: International intervention

Non classé

With regard to security, the main task was disarming the rebels and reforming the security policy. Further the crisis created more than one hundred thousand refugees and there was a need to reconstruct some four thousands houses, without forgetting to restore infrastructure.

The civil administration needed to be changed in order to create a balance in the state bureaucracy. That would allow a better representation of Albanians in the administration and to avoid corruption.

Strengthening the economy was important to reduce unemployment and stabilize the situation. The crisis plunged the country in a recession and threatened to collapse the regional economy.

All these measures needed to be ratified, what was worked out in the Ohrid agreement in August 2001. The failures in Kosovo had to be avoided in Macedonia with the risk of another border crisis. From the beginning of the crisis, the European Union organized the Western response to the conflict.

An international intervention was necessary to avoid the spread of the Macedonian crisis. The Bush administration wanted to keep a low profile seeing the Balkan situation and preferred that the operations were led by Europe. Nevertheless, European governments wanted to remove their impotence due to the previous failures in the Balkans and so Europe agreed for a European lead(72).

The first stage led by the powers in order to resolve the Macedonian issue was through diplomacy. As the crisis grew in June 2001, Europe appointed Javier Solana, a special representative (EUSR), in order to try to find a solution between the Albanian demands and the Macedonian government. During and after the crisis, the special representation continued to be on the ground to ensure European unity on the conflict. He represented the European Commission and the Council of the European Union and acted as the head of the mission reporting the development to the Council that would ensure a future European accession.

Unfortunately, the results through diplomacy were weak and both Europe and the United States redoubled their efforts by sending a negotiating team consisted of an US Balkans expert, James Pardrew, and the former Defence Minister, François Leotard. These negotiations led to the Ohrid agreement on August 13, 2001 between the United States, Europe and the different Macedonian political parties. Further NATO succeeded in negotiating a cease-fire with the Albanian rebels.

Compared to diplomacy, NATO and Europe began reconstruction by military operations a week after the Lake Ohrid agreement. These operations had no UN mandate but were kept up by the Macedonian government(73).

The first and largest mission was NATO’s Operation Essential Harvest consisted of 4,800 troops. The operation was also followed by two other NATO missions called Allied Harmony and Amber Fox, which provided protection for international monitors in Macedonia and helped the development of the implementation of the peace process(74).

Two years after the beginning of the crisis, NATO transferred full responsibility to Europe. The first European mission, called Concordia(75), had the same obligations than NATO that is providing emergency protection for non-military actors; the operation was a real test for the ESDP and its success was also linked with NATO that provided operational facilities in neighbouring Kosovo(76).

As the days went by, the situation stabilized and the Concordia mission was replaced by a police mission, Proxima, with duration of two years; its role was to support the rule of law(77). It helped to monitor and advise the local police. Moreover NATO helped to develop the security policy for a future NATO membership but also in the European Union in 2005. This accession was conditioned by the full implementation of the Ohrid agreement. Finally, Europe and the European Agency for Reconstruction provided an economic aid for state building and the OSCE, with the help of the US Agency for International Development, helped to improve the efficiency of state institutions(78).

72 Furthermore, Europe granted a road toward membership. The European lead is de facto comprehensive.
73 James Dobbins, Europe’s role in nation-building: From the Balkans to the Congo, Rand, 2008
74 James Dobbins, Europe’s role in nation-building: From the Balkans to the Congo, Rand, 2008
75 The lead of the European mission was made by Berlin.
76 James Dobbins, Europe’s role in nation-building: From the Balkans to the Congo, Rand, 2008
77 James Dobbins, Europe’s role in nation-building: From the Balkans to the Congo, Rand, 2008
78 James Dobbins, Europe’s role in nation-building: From the Balkans to the Congo, Rand, 2008

Page suivante : IV.III: Results

Retour au menu : State Failure – State Building: A theoretical analysis Case study: Kosovo – Macedonia